World Scripture


These links connect to other passages in World Scripture. Where these passages have been coded into HTML, the links are to the exact passage. Where the passage is still in ASCII (themes following theme054), the link connects to the theme. Footnotes in the ASCII version do not refer to the correct hardbound page numbers, and they have been corrected in this present file. Footnotes are not yet complete.

1. Yasna 32.9: See Videvdad 19.1-7, pp. 445-46.; Cf. Corinthians 4.4, p. 283.

2. Qur'an 24.21: Cf. Qur'an 4.116-17, p. 287 Cf. 4.118-20, p. 454.

3. John 8.43-45: Cf. Matthew 12.22-29, p. 265.

5. Sutta Nipata 436-39: Cf. Buddhacarita 13, pp. 446-47.

6. Sutra of Hui Neng 10: Buddhism traditionally identifies Mara with cravings and delusions, the nature of our own (evil) mind, just as Buddha is within us, a the nature or our own true mind. Cf. Dhammapada 46, p. 230.

7. Dinka Invocation: An ox is being sacrificed in order to propitiate the evil powers that are causing illness in a man named Akol. These evil powers include Macardit, the malign divinity who is for the Dinka the final cause of suffering and death. A fetish is a bundle of medicine imbued with black magic. It is used to gain influence over another person or cause him harm. But if the owner of a fetish neglects it, its magic will come back upon his head.

8. Ramayana, Aranya Kanda 32: Ravana is the chief of the demons, who terrorizes the worlds of gods and humans. Rama, the avatar of Vishnu, appears on earth to defeat him. Cf. Ramayana, Bala Kanda 15, pp. 447-48.

9. Videvdad 1.3-11: Cf. Yasna 30.3-5, p. 276.

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11. Isaiah 14.12-15: In the Christian tradition these verses are taken to describe the primeval fall of Lucifer and the beginning of sin. Lucifer was the angel of the intellect who was puffed up with willful pride. His ambition was to exceed God. But he was cast down from heaven and became Satan, who would then work his malignant will on humankind. This story of the primeval rebellion of the angels is greatly elaborated in the Book of Enoch. The word 'Lucifer,' which is Latin for 'light-bearer,' was first used in the Vulgate; however most modern Bibles return to the Hebrew and translate 'Morning Star' or 'Day Star.' This passage by the prophet Isaiah is a taunt against the king of Babylon. He makes use of a Canaanite variant of the myth of the rebellious angel, one which identified the angel with the atmospheric phenomenon of the morning star, which shines brightly in the sky until it is quenched by the brightness of the rising sun. Cf. Psalm 82, pp. 263-64.

12. Qur'an 17.61-64: Cf. Qur'an 2.30-33, p. 218 Cf. Qur'an 7.11-27, p 302. Cf. Srimad Bhagavatam 11.20, p. 265. Cf. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad 1.4.10, p. 287.

13. Pearl of Great Price, Moses 4.1-4: Satan's request to God contained two errors: he wanted to claim all the glory and credit for man's salvation when credit is due only to God, and he would save humanity by compulsion--'not one soul shall be lost,' without regard for man's free agency. Christ, the Beloved Son, correctly offers to God the credit for salvation. God then ordered Christ to cast Satan down to the earth, where he continues to seek to enslave humankind. Cf. Book of Mormon, 2 Nephi 2.19-26, pp. 303-4.

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Lotus Sutra 3: The 'Greater Vehicle' is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, the doctrine of the One Vehicle. Shariputra's initial doubts were due to the novelty of the Sutra's teaching, which set forth a single path embracing and transcending the three vehicles of shravaka, pratyekabuddha and bodhisattva. For a story where Mara in fact comes in disguise to give a false teaching, see Samyutta Nikaya v.2, pp. 383f. On discerning the spirit, Cf. 1 John 4.1, p. 380. Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti 6: This passage explains that the Maras and other temptations are not to be seen as fundamentally evil, but should rather be appreciated as offering trials and lessons to humans on the path to enlightenment. They may even be liberated bodhisattvas disguised as Maras as an expedient device (upaya) for the purpose of guiding and educating living beings. According to Udana 21-24, pp. 1022f., even the Buddha once tempted his disciple Nanda with visions of heavenly damsels in order to spur him to enlightenment. For another instance of a bodhisattva's deception, see Mahaparinirvana Sutra 424-33, pp. 753f. On the unreality of evil, Cf. Nectarean Shower of Holy Doctrines, p. 402; Science and Health, 480, p. 402.

Job 1.6-12: In Job, as in the previous Buddhist passage, the devil is not fundamentally evil and opposed to God, but is rather the one whom God allows to test Job's integrity. In proving Job, Satan is serving a divine purpose. For more of this story, and Job's legendary patience, see Job 1.13-22, p. 747; 2.9-10, pp. 707f. God often tries people through confronting them with evils; Cf. 2 Corinthians 12.7-10, p. 573, on Paul's thorn; Genesis Rabbah 56, pp. 621f. on the temptation of Abraham; and Qur'an 21.35, p. 571. 1 Peter 5.8: Cf. Sun Myung Moon, 1-1-68, p. 830. Genesis 4.6-7: Cf. Mahabharata, p. 391. Hadith of Muslim: Cf. Qur'an 114, p. 56. Qur'an 14.22: Cf. Qur'an 5.105, p. 678.